The underlying report presents the developments and innovations that are taking place within white biotechnology. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (
RIVMRijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu) initiated this research project to investigate the risks, in terms of biosafety and biosecurity, which may result from applications of production organisms, and to evaluate whether the current risk assessment methodologies are adequate. Industrial or ‘white’ biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for the processing and production of chemicals, materials and energy. White biotechnology is based on microbial fermentation processes. This report focuses on techniques used for the development of enhanced production strains for white biotechnology under contained use. Similar reports were also prepared for red and green biotechnology.